Setting a maximum number of rows per pages can reduce contention for allpages-locked tables and indexes. In most cases, it is preferable to convert the tables to use a data-only-locking scheme. If there is some reason that you cannot change the locking scheme and contention is a problem on an allpages-locked table or index, setting a max_rows_per_page value may help performance.
When there are fewer rows on the index and data pages, the chances of lock contention are reduced. As the keys are spread out over more pages, it becomes more likely that the page you want is not the page someone else needs. To change the number of rows per page, adjust the fillfactor or max_rows_per_page values of your tables and indexes.
fillfactor (defined by either sp_configure or create index) determines how full Adaptive Server makes each data page when it creates a new index on existing data. Since fillfactor helps reduce page splits, exclusive locks are also minimized on the index, improving performance. However, the fillfactor value is not maintained by subsequent changes to the data. max_rows_per_page (defined by sp_chgattribute, create index, create table, or alter table) is similar to fillfactor, except that Adaptive Server maintains the max_rows_per_page value as the data changes.
The costs associated with decreasing the number of rows per page using fillfactor or max_rows_per_page include more I/O to read the same number of data pages, more memory for the same performance from the data cache, and more locks. In addition, a low value for max_rows_per_page for a table may increase page splits when data is inserted into the table.