“Deadlocks” reports the number of index page splits and shrinks that resulted in deadlocks. Adaptive Server has a mechanism called deadlock retries that attempts to avoid transaction rollbacks caused by index page deadlocks. “Retries” reports the number of times Adaptive Server used this mechanism.
Deadlocks on index pages take place when each of two transactions needs to acquire locks held by the other transaction. On data pages, deadlocks result in choosing one process (the one with the least accumulated CPU time) as a deadlock victim and rolling back the process.
By the time an index deadlock takes place, the transaction has already updated the data page and is holding data page locks so rolling back the transaction causes overhead.
In a large percentage of index deadlocks caused by page splits and shrinks, both transactions can succeed by dropping one set of index locks, and restarting the index scan. The index locks for one of the processes are released (locks on the data pages are still held), and Adaptive Server tries the index scan again, traversing the index from the root page of the index.
Usually, by the time the scan reaches the index page that needs to be split, the other transaction has completed, and no deadlock takes place. By default, any index deadlock that is due to a page split or shrink is retried up to five times before the transaction is considered deadlocked and is rolled back.
For information on changing the default value for the number of deadlock retries, see the System Administration Guide.
The deadlock retries mechanism causes the locks on data pages to be held slightly longer than usual and causes increased locking and overhead. However, it reduces the number of transactions that are rolled back due to deadlocks. The default setting provides a reasonable compromise between the overhead of holding data page locks longer and the overhead of rolling back transactions that have to be reissued.
A high number of index deadlocks and deadlock retries indicates high contention in a small area of the index B-tree.
If your application encounters a high number of deadlock retries, reduce page splits using fillfactor when you re-create the index.
See “Reducing index maintenance”.